1. Skin whitening
Phloretin has an inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity, and the IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) is 37.5 μmol/L. A study found that 0.3% Phloretin inhibited tyrosinase by up to 98.2%, and its IC50 is 0.05%. It has better inhibitory on tyrosinase than Kojic Acid and Arbutin. Further studies found that the combination of Phloretin and a common tyrosinase inhibitor can greatly increase its inhibition rate on tyrosinase and achieve a 100% inhibition effect.
2. Anti-inflammatory and anti-bacteria
Studies have shown that Phloretin has anti-inflammatory effect, because it can inhibit the production of inflammatory factors, chemokines and differentiation factors. It can inhibit monocytes to adhere to keratinocytes and block the phosphorylation of the signaling protein kinases Akt and MAPK to achieve anti-inflammatory effects. Also, Phloretin is able to inhibit bacterias. On the one hand, it affects the energy metabolism of bacteria and the oxidative damage repair of bacterial growth; on the other hand, it leads to bacterial death by interfering with the synthesis of proteins inside the cells and disordering the metabolism inside the cells.
It has been found that Phloretin can not only directly absorb ultraviolet rays, but also reduce the damage of ultraviolet light to keratinocytes. It increases the SPF and SPA values of the cosmetic to add Phloretin. In addition, combination of Phloretin, VC and Ferulic Acid protects human skin from UV rays.
4. Anti-oxidation and anti-aging
Vitro experiments showed that Phloretin has the ability to inhibit peroxidation of mitochondrial lipid as well as scavenge DPPH free radical and ABTS free radicals. The antioxidant concentration to lipids is 10.30mg/L, which can remove free radicals in the skin. Phloretin not only has its own antioxidant effect, but also can be combined with other antioxidants to improve the antioxidant effect.
5. Moisturize skin
In recent years, researchers have found that plant-derived compounds have effect to moisturize skin, for example plant polysaccharides, plant polyphenols, and the like having a polar group like a hydroxyl group or a carboxyl group. The four hydroxyl groups contained in Phloretin bonds with water molecules to form hydrogen bond to absorb moisture. Therefore, Phloretin can also be used as a natural moisturizer in cosmetics.
6. Prevent hair loss
Soybean lipoxygenase is one of the important enzymes in the process of lipid oxidation; it affects hair loss. Foreign studies have shown that Phloretin can inhibit the activity of soybean lipoxygenase, thereby reducing hair loss due to premature aging. So Phloretin has potential anti-hair loss effect. It can be added as a raw material for anti-hair loss to shampoo and hair care products.